SPRSP35G February   2019  – March 2021 DRA829J , DRA829V

ADVANCE INFORMATION  

  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
    1. 3.1 Functional Block Diagram
  4. Revision History
  5. Device Comparison
    1. 5.1 Related Products
  6. Terminal Configuration and Functions
    1. 6.1 Pin Diagram
    2. 6.2 Pin Attributes
    3. 6.3 Signal Descriptions
      1. 6.3.1  ADC
        1. 6.3.1.1 MCU Domain
      2. 6.3.2  DDRSS
        1. 6.3.2.1 MAIN Domain
      3. 6.3.3  GPIO
        1. 6.3.3.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.3.2 WKUP Domain
      4. 6.3.4  I2C
        1. 6.3.4.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.4.2 MCU Domain
        3. 6.3.4.3 WKUP Domain
      5. 6.3.5  I3C
        1. 6.3.5.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.5.2 MCU Domain
      6. 6.3.6  MCAN
        1. 6.3.6.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.6.2 MCU Domain
      7. 6.3.7  MCSPI
        1. 6.3.7.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.7.2 MCU Domain
      8. 6.3.8  UART
        1. 6.3.8.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.8.2 MCU Domain
        3. 6.3.8.3 WKUP Domain
      9. 6.3.9  MDIO
        1. 6.3.9.1 MCU Domain
      10. 6.3.10 CPSW2G
        1. 6.3.10.1 MCU Domain
      11. 6.3.11 CPSW9G
        1. 6.3.11.1 MAIN Domain
      12. 6.3.12 ECAP
        1. 6.3.12.1 MAIN Domain
      13. 6.3.13 EQEP
        1. 6.3.13.1 MAIN Domain
      14. 6.3.14 EHRPWM
        1. 6.3.14.1 MAIN Domain
      15. 6.3.15 USB
        1. 6.3.15.1 MAIN Domain
      16. 6.3.16 SERDES
        1. 6.3.16.1 MAIN Domain
      17. 6.3.17 OSPI
        1. 6.3.17.1 MCU Domain
      18. 6.3.18 Hyperbus
        1. 6.3.18.1 MCU Domain
      19. 6.3.19 GPMC
        1. 6.3.19.1 MAIN Domain
      20. 6.3.20 MMC
        1. 6.3.20.1 MAIN Domain
      21. 6.3.21 CPTS
        1. 6.3.21.1 MAIN Domain
      22. 6.3.22 UFS
        1. 6.3.22.1 MAIN Domain
      23. 6.3.23 PRU_ICSSG [Currently Not Supported]
        1. 6.3.23.1 MAIN Domain
      24. 6.3.24 MCASP
        1. 6.3.24.1 MAIN Domain
      25. 6.3.25 DSS
        1. 6.3.25.1 MAIN Domain
      26. 6.3.26 DP
        1. 6.3.26.1 MAIN Domain
      27. 6.3.27 Camera Streaming Interface Receiver (CSI_RX_IF) Subsystem
        1. 6.3.27.1 MAIN Domain
      28. 6.3.28 DSI_TX
        1. 6.3.28.1 MAIN Domain
      29. 6.3.29 VPFE
        1. 6.3.29.1 MAIN Domain
      30. 6.3.30 DMTIMER
        1. 6.3.30.1 MAIN Domain
        2. 6.3.30.2 MCU Domain
      31. 6.3.31 Emulation and Debug
        1. 6.3.31.1 MAIN Domain
      32. 6.3.32 System and Miscellaneous
        1. 6.3.32.1 Boot Mode Configuration
          1. 6.3.32.1.1 MAIN Domain
          2. 6.3.32.1.2 MCU Domain
        2. 6.3.32.2 Clock
          1. 6.3.32.2.1 MAIN Domain
          2. 6.3.32.2.2 WKUP Domain
        3. 6.3.32.3 System
          1. 6.3.32.3.1 MAIN Domain
          2. 6.3.32.3.2 WKUP Domain
        4. 6.3.32.4 EFUSE
      33. 6.3.33 Power Supply
    4. 6.4 Pin Multiplexing
    5. 6.5 Connections for Unused Pins
  7. Specifications
    1. 7.1  Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 7.2  ESD Ratings
    3. 7.3  Power-On-Hour (POH) Limits
    4. 7.4  Recommended Operating Conditions
    5. 7.5  Operating Performance Points
    6. 7.6  Power Consumption Summary
    7. 7.7  Electrical Characteristics
      1. 7.7.1 USB2PHY Electrical Characteristics
      2. 7.7.2 SerDes 2-L-PHY/4-L-PHY Electrical Characteristics
      3. 7.7.3 UFS M-PHY Electrical Characteristics
      4. 7.7.4 eDP/DP AUX-PHY Electrical Characteristics
      5. 7.7.5 DDR0 Electrical Characteristics
    8. 7.8  VPP Specifications for One-Time Programmable (OTP) eFuses
      1. 7.8.1 Recommended Operating Conditions for OTP eFuse Programming
      2. 7.8.2 Hardware Requirements
      3. 7.8.3 Programming Sequence
      4. 7.8.4 Impact to Your Hardware Warranty
    9. 7.9  Thermal Resistance Characteristics
      1. 7.9.1 Thermal Resistance Characteristics for ALF Package
    10. 7.10 Timing and Switching Characteristics
      1. 7.10.1 Timing Parameters and Information
      2. 7.10.2 Power Supply Sequencing
        1. 7.10.2.1 Power Supply Slew Rate Requirement
        2. 7.10.2.2 Combined MCU and Main Domains Power-Up Sequencing
        3. 7.10.2.3 Combined MCU and Main Domains Power- Down Sequencing
        4. 7.10.2.4 Independent MCU and Main Domains Power- Up Sequencing
        5. 7.10.2.5 Independent MCU and Main Domains, Primary Power- Down Sequencing
        6. 7.10.2.6 Entry and Exit of MCU Only State
        7. 7.10.2.7 Entry and Exit of DDR Retention State
      3. 7.10.3 System Timing
        1. 7.10.3.1 Reset Timing
        2. 7.10.3.2 Safety Signal Timing
        3. 7.10.3.3 Clock Timing
      4. 7.10.4 Clock Specifications
        1. 7.10.4.1 Input and Output Clocks / Oscillators
          1. 7.10.4.1.1 WKUP_OSC0 Internal Oscillator Clock Source
            1. 7.10.4.1.1.1 Load Capacitance
            2. 7.10.4.1.1.2 Shunt Capacitance
          2. 7.10.4.1.2 WKUP_OSC0 LVCMOS Digital Clock Source
          3. 7.10.4.1.3 Auxiliary OSC1 Internal Oscillator Clock Source
            1. 7.10.4.1.3.1 Load Capacitance
            2. 7.10.4.1.3.2 Shunt Capacitance
          4. 7.10.4.1.4 Auxiliary OSC1 LVCMOS Digital Clock Source
          5. 7.10.4.1.5 Auxiliary OSC1 Not Used
          6. 7.10.4.1.6 WKUP_LFOSC0 Internal Oscillator Clock Source
          7. 7.10.4.1.7 WKUP_LFOSC0 Not Used
        2. 7.10.4.2 Output Clocks
        3. 7.10.4.3 PLLs
        4. 7.10.4.4 Device Inputs and Outputs Module Clocks Frequencies
      5. 7.10.5 Peripherals
        1. 7.10.5.1  ATL
          1. 7.10.5.1.1 ATL_PCLK Timing Requirements
          2. 7.10.5.1.2 ATL_AWS[x] Timing Requirements
          3. 7.10.5.1.3 ATL_BWS[x] Timing Requirements
          4. 7.10.5.1.4 ATCLK[x] Switching Characteristics
        2. 7.10.5.2  VPFE
        3. 7.10.5.3  CPSW2G
          1. 7.10.5.3.1 CPSW2G MDIO Interface Timings
          2. 7.10.5.3.2 CPSW2G RMII Timings
            1. 7.10.5.3.2.1 CPSW2G RMII[x]_REF_CLK Timing Requirements – RMII Mode
            2. 7.10.5.3.2.2 CPSW2G RMII[x]_RXD[1:0], RMII[x]_CRS_DV, and RMII[x]_RX_ER Timing Requirements – RMII Mode
            3. 7.10.5.3.2.3 CPSW2G RMII[x]_TXD[1:0], and RMII[x]_TX_EN Switching Characteristics – RMII Mode
          3. 7.10.5.3.3 CPSW2G RGMII Timings
            1. 7.10.5.3.3.1 RGMII[x]_RXC Timing Requirements – RGMII Mode
            2. 7.10.5.3.3.2 CPSW2G Timing Requirements for RGMII[x]_RD[3:0], and RGMII[x]_RCTL – RGMII Mode
            3. 7.10.5.3.3.3 CPSW2G RGMII[x]_TXC Switching Characteristics – RGMII Mode
            4. 7.10.5.3.3.4 RGMII[x]_TD[3:0], and RGMII[x]_TX_CTL Switching Characteristics – RGMII Mode
        4. 7.10.5.4  CPSW9G
          1. 7.10.5.4.1 CPSW9G MDIO Interface Timings
          2. 7.10.5.4.2 CPSW9G RMII Timings
            1. 7.10.5.4.2.1 RMII[x]_REF_CLK Timing Requirements – RMII Mode
            2. 7.10.5.4.2.2 RMII[x]_RXD[1:0], RMII[x]_CRS_DV, and RMII[x]_RX_ER Timing Requirements – RMII Mode
            3. 7.10.5.4.2.3 RMII[x]_TXD[1:0], and RMII[x]_TXEN Switching Characteristics – RMII Mode
          3. 7.10.5.4.3 CPSW9G RGMII Timings
            1. 7.10.5.4.3.1 RGMII[x]_RXC Timing Requirements – RGMII Mode
            2. 7.10.5.4.3.2 RGMII[x]_RD[3:0] and RGMII[x]_RCTL Timing Requirements – RGMII Mode
            3. 7.10.5.4.3.3 RGMII[x]_TXC Switching Characteristics – RGMII Mode
            4. 7.10.5.4.3.4 RGMII[x]_TD[3:0] and RGMII[x]_TX_CTL Switching Characteristics – RGMII Mode
        5. 7.10.5.5  CSI-2
        6. 7.10.5.6  DDRSS
        7. 7.10.5.7  DSS
        8. 7.10.5.8  eCAP
          1. 7.10.5.8.1 Timing Requirements for eCAP
          2. 7.10.5.8.2 Switching Characteristics for eCAP
        9. 7.10.5.9  EPWM
          1. 7.10.5.9.1 Timing Requirements for eHRPWM
          2. 7.10.5.9.2 Switching Characteristics for eHRPWM
        10. 7.10.5.10 eQEP
          1. 7.10.5.10.1 Timing Requirements for eQEP
          2. 7.10.5.10.2 Switching Characteristics for eQEP
        11. 7.10.5.11 GPIO
          1. 7.10.5.11.1 GPIO Timing Requirements
          2. 7.10.5.11.2 GPIO Switching Characteristics
        12. 7.10.5.12 GPMC
          1. 7.10.5.12.1 GPMC and NOR Flash — Synchronous Mode
            1. 7.10.5.12.1.1 GPMC and NOR Flash Timing Requirements — Synchronous Mode
            2. 7.10.5.12.1.2 GPMC and NOR Flash Switching Characteristics – Synchronous Mode
          2. 7.10.5.12.2 GPMC and NOR Flash — Asynchronous Mode
            1. 7.10.5.12.2.1 GPMC and NOR Flash Timing Requirements – Asynchronous Mode
            2. 7.10.5.12.2.2 GPMC and NOR Flash Switching Characteristics – Asynchronous Mode
          3. 7.10.5.12.3 GPMC and NAND Flash — Asynchronous Mode
            1. 7.10.5.12.3.1 GPMC and NAND Flash Timing Requirements – Asynchronous Mode
            2. 7.10.5.12.3.2 GPMC and NAND Flash Switching Characteristics – Asynchronous Mode
        13. 7.10.5.13 HyperBus
          1. 7.10.5.13.1 Timing Requirements for HyperBus
          2. 7.10.5.13.2 HyperBus 166 MHz Switching Characteristics
          3. 7.10.5.13.3 HyperBus 100 MHz Switching Characteristics
        14. 7.10.5.14 I2C
        15. 7.10.5.15 I3C
        16. 7.10.5.16 MCAN
        17. 7.10.5.17 MCASP
        18. 7.10.5.18 MCSPI
          1. 7.10.5.18.1 MCSPI — Master Mode
          2. 7.10.5.18.2 MCSPI — Slave Mode
        19. 7.10.5.19 MMCSD
          1. 7.10.5.19.1 MMC0 - eMMC Interface
            1. 7.10.5.19.1.1 Legacy SDR Mode
            2. 7.10.5.19.1.2 High Speed SDR Mode
            3. 7.10.5.19.1.3 High Speed DDR Mode
            4. 7.10.5.19.1.4 HS200 Mode
          2. 7.10.5.19.2 MMC1/2 - SD/SDIO Interface
            1. 7.10.5.19.2.1 Default Speed Mode
            2. 7.10.5.19.2.2 High Speed Mode
            3. 7.10.5.19.2.3 UHS–I SDR12 Mode
            4. 7.10.5.19.2.4 UHS–I SDR25 Mode
            5. 7.10.5.19.2.5 UHS–I SDR50 Mode
            6. 7.10.5.19.2.6 UHS–I DDR50 Mode
        20. 7.10.5.20 CPTS
          1. 7.10.5.20.1 CPTS Timing Requirements
          2. 7.10.5.20.2 CPTS Switching Characteristics
        21. 7.10.5.21 OSPI
          1. 7.10.5.21.1 OSPI With Data Training
            1. 7.10.5.21.1.1 OSPI Switching Characteristics – Data Training
          2. 7.10.5.21.2 OSPI Without Data Training
            1. 7.10.5.21.2.1 OSPI Switching Characteristics – DDR Mode
            2. 7.10.5.21.2.2 OSPI Switching Characteristics – SDR Mode
            3. 7.10.5.21.2.3 OSPI Timing Requirements – DDR Mode
            4. 7.10.5.21.2.4 OSPI Timing Requirements – SDR Mode
        22. 7.10.5.22 OLDI
          1. 7.10.5.22.1 OLDI Switching Characteristics
        23. 7.10.5.23 PCIE
        24. 7.10.5.24 Timers
          1. 7.10.5.24.1 Timing Requirements for Timers
          2. 7.10.5.24.2 Switching Characteristics for Timers
        25. 7.10.5.25 UART
          1. 7.10.5.25.1 Timing Requirements for UART
          2. 7.10.5.25.2 UART Switching Characteristics
        26. 7.10.5.26 USB
      6. 7.10.6 Emulation and Debug
        1. 7.10.6.1 Trace
        2. 7.10.6.2 JTAG
          1. 7.10.6.2.1 JTAG Electrical Data and Timing
            1. 7.10.6.2.1.1 JTAG Timing Requirements
            2. 7.10.6.2.1.2 JTAG Switching Characteristics
  8. Detailed Description
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Processor Subsystems
      1. 8.2.1 Arm Cortex-A72
      2. 8.2.2 Arm Cortex-R5F
      3. 8.2.3 DSP C71x
      4. 8.2.4 DSP C66x
    3. 8.3 Accelerators and Coprocessors
      1. 8.3.1 GPU
      2. 8.3.2 D5520MP2
      3. 8.3.3 VXE384MP2
    4. 8.4 Other Subsystems
      1. 8.4.1 MSMC
      2. 8.4.2 NAVSS
        1. 8.4.2.1 NAVSS0
        2. 8.4.2.2 MCU_NAVSS
        3. 8.4.2.3
      3. 8.4.3 PDMA Controller
      4. 8.4.4 Peripherals
        1. 8.4.4.1  ADC
        2. 8.4.4.2  ATL
        3. 8.4.4.3  CSI
          1. 8.4.4.3.1 Camera Streaming Interface Receiver (CSI_RX_IF) and MIPI DPHY Receiver (DPHY_RX)
          2. 8.4.4.3.2 Camera Streaming Interface Transmitter (CSI_TX_IF)
        4. 8.4.4.4  CPSW2G
        5. 8.4.4.5  CPSW9G
        6. 8.4.4.6  DCC
        7. 8.4.4.7  DDRSS
        8. 8.4.4.8  DSS
          1. 8.4.4.8.1 DSI
          2. 8.4.4.8.2 eDP
        9. 8.4.4.9  VPFE
        10. 8.4.4.10 eCAP
        11. 8.4.4.11 EPWM
        12. 8.4.4.12 ELM
        13. 8.4.4.13 ESM
        14. 8.4.4.14 eQEP
        15. 8.4.4.15 GPIO
        16. 8.4.4.16 GPMC
        17. 8.4.4.17 Hyperbus
        18. 8.4.4.18 I2C
        19. 8.4.4.19 I3C
        20. 8.4.4.20 MCAN
        21. 8.4.4.21 MCASP
        22. 8.4.4.22 MCRC Controller
        23. 8.4.4.23 MCSPI
        24. 8.4.4.24 MMC/SD
        25. 8.4.4.25 OSPI
        26. 8.4.4.26 PCIE
        27. 8.4.4.27 SerDes
        28. 8.4.4.28 WWDT
        29. 8.4.4.29 Timers
        30. 8.4.4.30 UART
        31. 8.4.4.31 USB
        32. 8.4.4.32 UFS
  9. Applications and Implementation
    1. 9.1 Power Supply Mapping
    2. 9.2 Device Connection and Layout Fundamentals
      1. 9.2.1 Power Supply Decoupling and Bulk Capacitors
        1. 9.2.1.1 Power Distribution Network Implementation Guidance
      2. 9.2.2 External Oscillator
      3. 9.2.3 JTAG and EMU
      4. 9.2.4 Reset
      5. 9.2.5 Unused Pins
      6. 9.2.6 Hardware Design Guide for AM752x/DRA829/TDA4VM Devices
    3. 9.3 Peripheral- and Interface-Specific Design Information
      1. 9.3.1 LPDDR4 Board Design and Layout Guidelines
      2. 9.3.2 OSPI and QSPI Board Design and Layout Guidelines
        1. 9.3.2.1 No Loopback and Internal Pad Loopback
        2. 9.3.2.2 External Board Loopback
        3. 9.3.2.3 DQS (only available in Octal Flash devices)
      3. 9.3.3 SERDES REFCLK Design Guidelines
      4. 9.3.4 USB VBUS Design Guidelines
      5. 9.3.5 System Power Supply Monitor Design Guidelines
      6. 9.3.6 High Speed Differential Signal Routing Guidance
      7. 9.3.7 External Capacitors
      8. 9.3.8 Thermal Solution Guidance
  10. 10Device and Documentation Support
    1. 10.1 Device Nomenclature
      1. 10.1.1 Standard Package Symbolization
      2. 10.1.2 Device Naming Convention
    2. 10.2 Tools and Software
    3. 10.3 Documentation Support
    4. 10.4 Support Resources
    5. 10.5 Trademarks
    6. 10.6 Glossary
  11. 11Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information
    1. 11.1 Packaging Information

パッケージ・オプション

デバイスごとのパッケージ図は、PDF版データシートをご参照ください。

メカニカル・データ(パッケージ|ピン)
  • ALF|827
サーマルパッド・メカニカル・データ
発注情報

Combined MCU and Main Domains Power-Up Sequencing

Figure 7-3 describes the primary power-up sequencing when similar MCU and Main voltage domains are combined into common power rails. Combining MCU and Main voltage domains simplifies PDN design by reducing total number of power rails and sources while making MCU and Main processor sub-systems operational dependent on common power rails. Table 9-1 in Section 9.1, Power Supply Mapping captures recommended device voltage domain to power rail mapping summary.

GUID-1BA322D5-26BB-4467-A387-36ED0D47484D-low.gifFigure 7-3 Combined MCU and Main Domains, Primary Power-Up Sequence
  1. Terminology:
    • Primary = Essential power up sequence of all voltage domains to full active state.
    • VOPR MIN = Minimum operational voltage level that ensures functionality as specified in Section 7.4 , Recommended Operating Conditions.
    • Ramp Up = Voltage supply transition time from off condition to VOPR MIN.
    • Domain_“n” = multiple instances of similar voltage domains (that is, dual voltage IO domains, VDDSHVn, where n = from 0 to 6.
    • Domain_“xxx” = different signal type/protocol domains using same voltage supply type and level (that is, VDDA_1P8_xx = VDDA_1P8_DSITX, VDDA_1P8_USB, VDDA_0P8_DSITX, VDDA_0P8_USB, etc.)
    Time stamps:

    Markers showing approximate elapsed times that are dependent upon PDN feature set, component selection and power mapping. Values shown are typical for PDNs combining MCU and Main voltage domains but could vary based upon PDN design.

    Time Stamp definitions and (typical values for reference only):

    T0 – All 3.3V voltages start supply ramp-up to VOPR MIN (0ms)

    T1 – All 1.8V voltages start supply ramp-up to VOPR MIN (0.5ms)

    T2 – All core voltages start supply ramp-up to VOPR MIN (1.0ms)

    T3 – All RAM array voltages start supply ramp-up to VOPR MIN (1.5ms)

    T4 – OSC1 is stable and PORz/MCU_PORz are de-asserted to release processor from reset. (11ms)

  2. Any MCU or Main dual voltage IO domains (VDDSHVn_MCU or VDDSHVn) being supplied by 3.3V to support 3.3V digital interfaces
  3. Any MCU or Main dual voltage IO domains (VDDSHVn_MCU or VDDSHVn) being supplied by 1.8V to support 1.8V digital interfaces
  4. VDDSHV5 supports MMC1 signaling for SD memory cards. If compliant high-speed SD card operation is needed, then an independent, dual voltage (3.3V/1.8V) power source and rail are required. The start of ramp-up to 3.3V will be same as other 3.3V domains as shown. If SD card is not needed or standard data rates with fixed 3.3V operation is acceptable, then domain can be grouped with digital IO 3.3V power rail. If a SD card is capable of operating with fixed 1.8V, then domain can be grouped with digital IO 1.8V power rail.
  5. VDDA_3P3_USB is 3.3V analog domain used for USB 2.0 differential interface signaling. A low noise, analog supply is recommended to provide best signal integrity for USB data eye mask compliance. The start of ramp-up to 3.3V will be same as other 3.3V domains as shown. If USB interface is not needed or data bit errors can be tolerated, then domain can be grouped with 3.3V digital IO power rail either directly or through a supply filter.
  6. VDDA_1P8_<phy> are 1.8V analog domains supporting multiple serial PHY interfaces. A low noise, analog supply is recommended to provide best signal integrity, interface performance and spec compliance. If any of these interfaces are not needed, data bit errors or non-compliant operation can be tolerated, then domains can be grouped with digital IO 1.8V power rail either directly or through an in-line supply filter is allowed.
  7. VDD_MMC0 is 1.8V digital domain supporting MMC0 signaling for eMMC interface. If MMC0 or eMMC0 interface is not needed, then domain can be grouped with digital IO 1.8V power rail. However, if MMC0 interface is needed, then VDD_MMC0 must not start ramp-up until VDD_CORE has reached VOPR MIN.
  8. VDD_MCU is a digital voltage domain with a wide range enabling it to be grouped and ramped-up with either VDD_CORE or all RAM array domains (VDDAR_xxx).
  9. VDDA_1P8_<clk/pll/ana> are 1.8V analog domains supporting clock oscillator, PLL and analog circuitry needing a low noise supply for optimal performance. It is not recommended to combine analog VDDA_1P8_<phy> domains or digital VDDSHVn_MCU and VDDSHVn IO domains since high frequency switching noise could negatively impact jitter performance of clock, PLL and DLL signals.
  10. VDDA_0P8_<dll/pll> are 0.8V analog domains supporting PLL and DLL circuitry needing a low noise supply for optimal performance. It is not recommended to combine these domains with any other 0.8V domains since high frequency switching noise could negatively impact jitter performance of PLL and DLL signals.
  11. Minimum set-up and hold times shown with respect to MCU_PORz and PORz asserting high to latch MCU_BOOTMODEn (referenced to MCU_VDDSHV0) and BOOTMODEn (reference to VDDSHV2) settings into registers during power up sequence.
  12. Minimum elapsed time from crystal oscillator circuitry being energized (VDDS_OSC1 at T1) until stable clock frequency is reached depends upon on crystal oscillator, capacitor parameters and PCB parasitic values. A conservative 10ms elapsed time defined by (T4 – T1) time stamps is shown. This could be reduced depending upon customer’s clock circuit (that is, crystal oscillator or clock generator) and PCB designs.